Graphene Oxide: Generalities, uses and applications



Since graphene was isolated for the first time in 2004 by the Manchester group, this nanomaterial has proven to be the most revolutionary for the development of new applications at an industrial level.

Graphene has extraordinary electrical, optical, thermal properties and high mechanical resistance. The properties of graphene are attributed to its structure in the form of two-dimensional (2D) sheets, made up of hexagonally bonded carbon atoms and a thickness of one carbon atom.

Currently there are different methods of graphene production, these can be classified into two methods, according to their origin, the “bottom-up” method and the “top down” method. The “bottom-Up” method consists in the creation of graphene structures through building blocks (atoms, molecules), for example, by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD); and the “top down” method involves the production of graphene from the oxidation of graphite. Graphite is made up of sheets of graphene that are stacked on top of each other. The following diagram represents the process for obtaining graphene from the oxidation of graphite.

Schematic diagram of the process for obtaining GO, through the oxidation of graphite.

The graphite oxidation process begins with the addition of graphite in sulfuric acid (H2SO4), with constant mechanical stirring. Subsequently, potassium permanganate (KMnO4) is slowly added, producing a chemical reaction that allows the graphite (graphene sheets stacked on top of each other) to be chemically modified in its structure. When KMnO4 reacts with H2SO4, it forms manganese oxide VII (Mn2O7), which is a very selective oxidizing agent on double bond aromatic compounds, such as graphite. The oxidizing agent molecularly attacks the structure of each graphene sheet in the graphite, grafting oxygenated functional groups (with oxygen), such as epoxide groups (C-O-C) and hydroxyl groups (-OH), on each sheet, and carboxyl groups (-COOH, CO2H ) on the edges of each sheet, obtaining graphite oxide and graphene oxide (GO), see Figure 1.

Figure 1. Structure of graphene oxide

The incorporation of oxygenated functional groups allows a material such as graphite, which is highly hydrophobic (which repels water) and a good electrical conductor, to become graphite oxide and graphene oxide (GO), highly hydrophilic materials, that is, they mix and disperse easily with water (See Figure 2). GO is chemically similar to graphite oxide, but structurally differs in the arrangement and number of stacked sheets.

The GO can be defined as a single exfoliated graphene sheet or stack of few sheets (3-4) that is functionalized with different oxygenated groups. Among its main characteristics is that it is hydrophilic, insulating and hygroscopic (absorbs moisture). On the other hand, graphene oxide sheets possess a large surface area and exhibit high mechanical strength and flexibility.


Graphene oxide has attracted great interest in various fields of science and technology, due to its remarkable mechanical, chemical, and thermal properties, among others. So numerous investigations began, to take advantage of the properties of graphene oxide.

In 2011, the first investigations of the use of GO as a precursor in the large-scale production of graphene emerged, for use as filler/reinforcement material/in polymeric matrices, such as high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and low-density polyethylene (HDPE). density (LDPE).

By 2014, GO was considered feasible for use as a flame retardant agent. Research is still ongoing to functionalize it with different polymeric materials.

In 2017, the first reports of the manufacture of GO-based membranes began, since it is impermeable to gases and liquids, showing its ability to filter small particles, organic molecules and even its use for seawater desalination.

In 2018, Energeia-Graphenemex started research on graphene oxide as a new additive for the production of anticorrosive and antimicrobial coatings. By 2019, studies of graphene oxide in coatings with antibacterial behavior increased, associated with the fact that GO is capable of penetrating the cell membrane of bacteria, producing oxidative stress and inhibiting their reproduction.

In particular, the functionalization of GO allows it to be applicable in biological systems, development of biosensors for the identification of specific molecules, drug delivery systems, among others.

Energeia Graphenemex®, a leading Mexican company in Latin America in research and production of graphene materials for the development of industrial applications. It has extensive experience in the production of graphene oxide (GO) on a large scale, with different degrees of oxidation and high quality for use in different applications and industries. Currently, it uses graphene oxide in the production of concrete additives and anticorrosive and antimicrobial coatings that are marketed under the Graphenergy brand.


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  3. Y.-j. Wan, L.-x. Gong, L.-c. Tang, L.-b. Wu y J.-x. Jiang, «Mechanical properties of epoxy composites filled with silane-functionalized graphene oxide,» COMPOSITES PART A, vol. 64, pp. 79-89, 2014.
  4. J. Wang, C. Xu, H. Hu, L. Wan, R. Chen, H. Zheng, F. Liu, M. Zhang, X. Shang y X. Wang, «Synthesis , mechanical , and barrier properties of LDPE / Graphene nanocomposites using vinyl triethoxysilane as a coupling agent,» J. Nanopart Res, vol. 13, pp. 869-878, 2011.

Graphene in the coatings and paints industry



Graphene is currently the most revolutionary nanotechnological additive in the coatings and paints industry.

Coatings are regularly used for decorative purposes and for surface protection, especially for protection against corrosion, humidity, fouling, mechanical wear, among others. At a commercial level, there is a wide variety of coatings based on different types of resins and additives, their efficiency is generally associated with an increase in cost. However, the coatings still have low resistance to corrosion, abrasion and limited chemical and thermal resistance.

Therefore, the coatings industry, like many other industries, is constantly researching and developing new technologies for the formulation and application of new and better coatings.

Since 2004, when the graphene nanomaterial was first isolated, scientists in the coatings industry have been looking for ways to use graphene as an additive to improve the performance and technology of coatings in different application areas.

Graphene has unique properties, mainly attributed to its structure in the form of two-dimensional (2D) sheets, formed by carbon atoms linked in a hexagonal manner and a thickness of one carbon atom. This nanomaterial has extraordinary properties, which include high electrical and thermal conductivity, and high mechanical resistance. In addition, it possesses other distinctive properties, including gas impermeability, chemical resistance, antibacterial potential, and high surface area.

Graphene’s carbon-based composition and its compatibility make it a viable additive for organic polymeric coatings.

Among the advantages offered by the use of graphene is its ability to incorporate new or improved characteristics in the coatings. Different types of multifunctional coatings can be developed, such as:

  • Anticorrosive coatings

One of the main uses of graphene coatings is protection against corrosion. Graphene creates pathways that are very tortuous, preventing water and oxygen molecules and/or chemical agents from diffusing to the surface of metal-based materials, resulting in metal protection against oxidation and corrosion. corrosion.

  • Fire retardant coatings

Conventional additives based on halogens (bromine and chlorine), as well as phosphorous, melamine and inorganic compounds, are used to improve the fire resistance of coatings, however, these materials are toxic to humans and the environment. On the other hand, the high content of these flame retardants can cause the deterioration of other properties in the coatings.

Therefore, the application of graphene as a new additive in coatings can reduce or eliminate the use of conventional flame retardant additives, it can also provide the coating with better performance against extreme temperatures for a longer time and with better mechanical stability.

  • Coatings resistant to wear or abrasión

Graphene has proven to be a potential candidate for wear, abrasion and scratch resistant coatings. Graphene is the lightest material and two hundred times more resistant than steel, in addition, graphene has a high capacity to withstand large pressure differences and high mechanical resistance.

  • Antifouling coatings

Graphene is a good candidate for use as an anti-stick agent. Its application reduces the problem of fouling and the deposition of organic and inorganic materials in the hulls of ships, ships or marine vessels, oil platforms, among others. This type of application is mainly attributed to the hydrophobic (water repellent) and barrier properties of graphene.

  • Antimicrobial coatings

The use of graphene or graphene oxide sheets as an antimicrobial agent is innovative, since there are studies that have shown a strong antimicrobial activity against a wide variety of microorganisms, including Gram +, Gram – bacteria and fungi.

Associated with the fact that graphene materials are capable of penetrating the cell membrane of microorganisms, producing oxidative stress and inhibiting their reproduction.

Globally, research and development of graphene-based coatings continues. Currently there are several companies and institutions that have made improved formulations with graphene for coatings, among which the following stand out:

  • Applied Graphene Materials, based in the United Kingdom, in collaboration with the American company Sherwin-Williams, are developing graphene-based anticorrosive paints. Its objective is to incorporate graphene in different formulations, especially in maritime paint for use in ship hulls to protect them from corrosion.
  • The Sixth Element Materials, a Chinese company that focuses on the research, development and sale of graphene materials, has launched a graphene-zinc-based anticorrosive primer for offshore wind power towers.
  • Graphenstone, a Spanish company, has developed ecological paint that combines graphene and lime technology. Obtaining paints with greater resistance, flexibility, quality and a longer life span compared to conventional lime-based paints.

Energeia – Graphenemex®, a leading Mexican company in Latin America in the research and production of graphene materials for the development of industrial applications, through its Graphenergy line, has launched a wide range of nanotechnological coatings with graphene. These coatings offer high anticorrosive and antimicrobial protection. In addition, it provides high resistance to wear, resistance to UV rays, impermeability and extraordinary adherence, in order to improve the useful life of any surface or installation and reduce maintenance costs.

Graphene coatings, in addition to having anticorrosive protection, can provide greater chemical resistance, UV resistance, higher thermal performance in a wide range of temperatures, as well as more flexible and crack-resistant coatings.


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Use of Graphene for automotive care

Use of Graphene

for automotive care

Just as continuous exposure to solar radiation is harmful to our skin, it also affects the appearance of cars, in particular it causes damage to paint, moldings, tires and other auto parts. In fact, the sun, acid rain and temperature changes are three of its main enemies, for that reason there are countless product options on the market for its care.

Graphene is the most interesting form in which Carbon can occur and consists of sheets of carbon atoms extracted mainly from Graphite or from some gases. The great scientific and technological relevance of this material is due to the particular organization of its atoms, which gives it surprising and numerous properties that have captured the attention of a large number of industries, including the automotive industry.

The potential uses attributed to Graphene for this industry are the manufacture of coatings for chassis and bodies, plastics for auto parts, either to improve their quality or to totally or partially replace metal parts, tires, textiles, greases, lubricants and products for car care.

Energeia- Graphenemex® dedicated to the research and production of graphene materials as well as the development of applications at an industrial level, in 2018 under the Nanocar® brand, placed on the market the first line of products with Graphene for automotive care.


Nanocar® products form a protective and nano-filling film for defects that allows the atomic sheets of Graphene to adhere to the surfaces of the bodywork, protecting against dust and moisture, delaying the effects of corrosion, as well as acting as a barrier against UV radiation and as a temperature dissipator to limit the long-term deterioration of the paint. In addition, the continuous use of Nanocar® products facilitates subsequent cleaning, without leaving a trace of drying, even when washing is carried out with hot surfaces.

Relationship of the properties of Graphene and its effects on Nanocar® products

Drafting: EF/DHS

Graphene and the Food Packaging Industry


and the Food Packaging Industry

According to data from the World Bank, every year in Mexico 24 million tons of food are wasted. This means that 34% of the country’s production is not only NOT consumed, but also generates an average expense of 491 billion pesos.

This impact is not only economic, but it is a problem that extends to the social sphere, due to the well-known food crisis and to the environment, due to the high water requirements for food production processes that will not be used and whose decomposition will contribute considerable CO2 emissions that contribute to global warming.

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the loss and food waste exceeds 1,300 million tons per year.

Within this multifactorial problem, the container and packaging industry, also known as “packing”, is a crucial actor considering that there are unavoidable conditions such as temperature, humidity, lighting, oxygen and numerous handling practices throughout the entire supply chain. production of food, which affect its quality, shelf life and acceptability by consumers.

In the search for solutions to improve the quality of packing products and, consequently, their content, nanotechnology has been a great ally. For example, to avoid microbial contamination, nanoparticles of silver, titanium dioxide, copper oxide, carbon nanotubes or magnesium oxide are used; to improve the mechanical or barrier properties, it is common to use nanoparticles of silicate, clay, polyamide, iron or iron oxides, cellulose nanofibers and for other needs there are nanoparticles of tungsten, molybdenum, barium sulfate, barium titanate , chitosan, zeolites, activated carbon, etc.

Graphene nanoparticles are mainly made up of carbon, like graphite and diamond, but with multifunctional characteristics. This means that they do not have a single function, but rather, unlike other nanoparticles, Graphene, due to its extraordinary physical and chemical properties, can be used for different purposes, for example, to design lighter and more resistant products, with greater impermeability against liquids and gases, in addition to protecting against microbial contamination and against UV radiation, among other properties that substantially improve the performance of the compounds with which it is combined.

“Graphene has crossed the limits of laboratories to reach commercial applications to combat the main enemies of food”, these are some examples of what is being developed for the Packing industry:

Tetra Pak
The Swedish company Tetra Pak, leader in research and development in the packaging sector, through the European Graphene Flagship project, studies the use of Graphene for the manufacture of products with low environmental impact to reduce the carbon footprint, improve the performance of materials, add properties and optimize recyclability.

The Spanish company Applynano uses nanomaterials, including graphene oxide, to promote the durability and recyclability of plastics, as well as to improve antimicrobial, thermal, and electrical properties, among others.

Plastic Technology Center (Andaltec)
The Technological Center of Plastic (Andaltec) within the European project Grafood, had the initiative to use derivatives of Graphene for the development of active packaging to increase the shelf life of food and reduce food waste.

Energeia – Graphenemex®
The Mexican company Energeia – Graphenemex®, through the polymer division Graphenergy Advanced Graphenic Solutions, promotes the use of Graphene and its derivatives as nano-reinforcement of plastic for different industries. Among the benefits it offers for the packing industry are mechanical resistance and resistance to degradation by UV radiation, greater barrier effect and interesting antimicrobial properties, highly promising for prolonging the life of products and their contents. Likewise, in addition to adding value to its developments with the multifunctional properties of Graphene and its derivatives, the company also aims to support other innovation projects with graphene nanotechnology, while seeking to collaborate with the circular economy to improve the quality of new and recycled plastic materials, to reduce the consumption of single-use products.

Evolution of the Graphene Industry in recent years in the world


Evolution of the Graphene Industry in recent years in the world

Graphene is the most revolutionary nanomaterial of the 21st century and is considered the basic pillar for carbon nanochemistry, that is, the main element of all organic compounds.

Its versatility derives from its structure in the form of two-dimensional (2D) sheets, made up of carbon atoms linked in a hexagonal manner, and its importance lies in the extraordinary properties attributed to it and that have been conceived as the solution to innumerable social, environmental, scientific, technological and of course, economic needs.

Graphene sheet. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy.
Energeia Collection – Graphenemex

Graphene allows matter to be modified to design compounds with new or improved characteristics, since it transfers its properties to the materials to which it is incorporated. This has allowed it to be used in the development of applications that seek to potentiate these properties, as shown in the following image.

Evolution – Graphene was first isolated in 2004 by Russian researchers Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov from the University of Manchester; subsequently, and thanks to their experiments, in 2010 they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics, as it was considered one of the most important discoveries of the century.

So important was the finding that in 2013 the European Union (EU) granted a budget of one billion euros to create the Graphene Flagship, an ambitious project valid for ten years with the aim of linking academia with industry, not only to understand its properties theoretically, but to fully exploit its benefits in real applications or products.

From that moment on, the progress of the investigations was so fast, and the expectations were higher and higher that, in 2017, the first edition of the ISO/TS 80004-13:2017 standard emerged (Ratified by the Spanish Association for Standardization in October 2020) for the normalization and standardization of Nanotechnology in new materials, including Graphene.

In the same 2020, a group of 70 researchers who are members of the Graphene Flagship, published the first manual with more than 500 pages on countless types of Graphene. By 2021, around 50 “spin-offs” and “startups” with different visions were registered within the organization, making the possibility of having a greater number of applications with Graphene or graphene materials at more affordable costs a reality by 2022.

In 2021 again the EU through the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) with the new ISO-G-SCoPe project, set the objective of standardizing the methods to transfer Graphene to the industry, this as a result of the non-existence of production and quality standards, while, through the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards, under the direction of BAM, it seeks to validate the processes in a global test to convert them into standards.

Energeia Graphenemex® is the pioneer Mexican company in Latin America focused on the research and production of graphene materials for the development of applications at an industrial level. Among its strengths is the creation of patented methods and processes for replicable and large-scale production that ensures the availability of the appropriate graphene materials in accordance with the requirements of the applications it develops, either for its own products or as a strategic ally of other companies interested in innovating and improving their products with these materials.

Polymeric nanocomposites with graphene reinforcement


Polymeric nanocomposites with graphene reinforcement

Mexico City – Thanks to the extraordinary properties, innumerable investigations and business promises around Graphene in the world, in 2021 its market was valued at 127.12 million dollars, forecasting an annual growth rate of more than 70% in the period from 2022 to 2027. However, 18 years after its isolation and despite the enormous competition from companies to develop applications with this nanomaterial, there are still relatively few products available on the market that contain it and take advantage of its benefits. This is mainly due to the investment and complexity for the transformation of graphite into graphene or in any of its variants (graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide), the difficulty of producing it on an industrial scale to have it available as the fundamental raw material in the transformation of new compounds, as well as the need for scientific-industrial knowledge for the creation of efficient and economically viable applications.

The Mexican company Energeia Fusion S.A. de C.V., has focused on solving the most representative obstacles that Graphene has faced to reach the market, working hard on the creation and standardization of its own methods and processes that today allow it to optimize resources for product development. quality in a short time.

Polymeric nanocomposites with graphene oxide

The polymer division of the Graphenergy Advanced Graphenic Solutions line is part of a new line of highly effective nanotechnological additives for the plastics industry that, in addition to the added value represented by the multifunctional properties that graphene provides to polymers (mechanical strength, impermeability, resistance to UV radiation and/or antimicrobial activity), it also adds value for the circular economy, since it allows the use, reuse and recycling of plastic products, reducing the exploitation of natural resources and reducing the generation of waste, resulting in significant social, economic and environmental impacts.

What is the science of Graphene for reinforcing materials?

  1. Las fuertes interacciones entre la región interfacial de la matriz polimérica y las partículas nanométricas del grafeno son decisivas para mejorar las propiedades de los materiales,
  2. La correcta integración del grafeno con los materiales poliméricos mejora la organización en su estructura, haciendola más densa y compacta y por lo tanto mejora las propiedades mecánicas.
  3. Mejora las propiedades de barrera contra líquidos y gases, aumenta el tiempo de vida útil del producto y permite tener diversas propiedades en un solo material, como: conductividad, resistencia a la radiación ultravioleta, impermeabilidad, flexibilidad, ligereza, actividad antimicrobiana, etc.

“Las propiedades del Grafeno son tan numerosas como las variables asociadas, por eso es difícil definir una fórmula estándar que satisfaga todas sus expectativas. El reto está en encontrar el equilibrio entre sus propiedades”.

A continuación, se describen algunos de los innumerables efectos y potenciales usos de los materiales grafénicos sobre distintas matrices poliméricas:

Mechanical strength

Graphene materials cause changes in the viscoelastic behavior of polymers, showing greater resistance to elongation, an interesting property for the design of products that are more resistant to deformation, such as sealing products, cushioning, transport or tires, footwear, sports, etc. In addition to increasing the elastic modulus, it also improves the impact resistance of polymers in the range of 20 to 200%, with weight reductions of up to 35%, this property is of interest for the manufacture of lighter products with equal or greater resistance than conventional plastics, opening the possibility of reducing or substituting the use of metal parts for plastic parts for the automotive, construction, and security industries, among others.

Resistance to degradation

On the other hand, this nanomaterial has also shown other interesting contributions, for example, in accelerated weathering tests carried out on plastics reinforced with graphene and/or derivatives, it has been identified that the use of low concentrations can increase its resistance to extreme conditions up to 7 times. of humidity, temperature and ultraviolet radiation. Furthermore, if we consider that when plastic is exposed to UV radiation, it emits greenhouse gases (methane and ethylene). Therefore, by increasing the resistance to degradation, we could also favor the reduction of these emissions, without affecting the ability of PET to be reused or recycled, but, on the contrary, using graphene offers it more opportunities to be recycled.

Fire resistance

Another recognized property of graphene is that it is an excellent thermal conductor. In tests carried out on different polymers, those modified with graphene oxide, in addition to improving their mechanical properties, also improved flame retardancy. Being the polypropylene the most benefited when identifying a self-extinguishing behavior. This contribution is attractive for its application in electrical cable and wire coatings or plastic materials in general that require thermal resistance.

These are just some of the multiple properties that graphene and its derivatives can offer the plastics industry and all those who benefit from it and that, despite efforts to reduce the circulation of plastic due to environmental impacts, the advantages offered by graphene can be well focused to make the use, reuse and recycling of plastic more efficient.

Some of the plastic products with graphene that have been commercialized are described below:

  1. Energeia Fusion-Graphenemex through its polymer division develops Masterbatches with graphene oxide for the production of personal protection equipment such as face shields and non-woven fabrics for face masks. Likewise, it has developed modified polymers for hydraulic concrete and asphalt concrete, in addition to the Graphenergy line of coatings for anticorrosive and antimicrobial protection (Mexico),
  2. Directa Plus designed a face mask with graphene for the fight against the pandemic caused by SARS-COV2 (United Kingdom),
  3. The international wheel producer Vittoria developed the bicycle wheels called Qurano (Italy),
  4. Progress, with its Progress Atom LTD model, provides better performance in terms of wear resistance, greater grip, greater impermeability, more efficient heat dissipation and greater lateral rigidity, with less weight (Spain),
  5. Dassi Bikes built the world’s first bicycle made from graphene (UK),
  6. FiiO Electronics launched headphones with a graphene-enhanced diaphragm driver (China),
  7. NanoCase created smartphone cases for better heat dissipation (China),
  8. Catlike uses graphene to produce cycling helmets (Spain).


Nanotechnology applied in the tube marking process

Graphenergy construction

Nanotechnology applied in the tube marking process

Mexico City – Energeia Graphenemex® is a pioneering nanotechnology company in Latin America, dedicated to the research and production of graphene materials, as well as the development of applications at an industrial level.

Within the company’s research and development protocols, it seeks to solve problems faced by companies or industries on a daily basis, for which research agreements or alliances are made to seek to develop a solution in which graphene is become the agent of change.

Why we developed Graphenergy Ink?

In 2019 there was an approach with one of the largest companies in the world in the manufacture of steel tubes that was facing a serious problem in its process of marking the tubes, which were marketed.

During the tube manufacturing process, marking is necessary for rapid identification and traceability, optimizing all the processes and procedures that each of the steel tubes must go through. However, there was a problem: the ink used in the marking process erased very easily and did not withstand application temperatures above 70°C, in addition to having low resistance to abrasion.

In the course of manufacturing steel tubes, it is normal for these tubes to be subjected to different processes; rotation on conveyors, rollers, shot blasting and transport with cranes, where there is high friction and abrasion between tubes, so the ink ended up being torn off, erasing the marking on the metal surface, and thus losing all control and traceability of the tubes.< /p>

To offer a comprehensive solution to the marking problem, Energeia Graphenemex®, through its Graphenergy Anticorrosive line, developed a new white marking ink with graphene oxide.

Among the most important characteristics of this developed graphene oxide marking ink are:

  • Extraordinary thermal resistance (resists more than 200 °C)
  • Resistance to UV rays
  • Anticorrosive property
  • High adhesion to metallic substrates
  • Abrasion resistance
  • Ultra-fast drying (3 seconds)
  • Excellent covering power

Thermal resistance to extreme temperatures

Thanks to the development of the marking ink, the problem of the lack of adherence of the marking ink was solved, as well as the issue of abrasion that occurs when moving the tubes during transport, thus maintaining the traceability of the tubes .

Due to its characteristics, the production process was additionally benefited by:

  • Ultra-fast drying: it allowed the production line not to stop, which could improve production times
  • Anti-corrosion protection: a version of the transparent ink was formulated that is applied on the tubes after marking, preventing them from rusting.

Nanotechnological additive for concrete with graphene oxide

Graphenergy Construction

Nanotechnological additive for concrete with graphene oxide

Mexico City – 9 years after being established, Energeia Fusion S.A. de C.V., the most important Mexican company in Latin America and promoter of the renowned Graphenemex® brand, launches the Graphenergy construction line, a new generation of nanotechnological additives for concrete with graphene oxide, which promises to strengthen the infrastructure and construction industry .

El Grafeno, también conocido como “el material del futuro”, finalmente traspasó la barrera de los laboratorios de investigación y se ha convertido en una realidad como potencial solución de innumerables necesidades sociales, ambientales e industriales. Este maravilloso nanomaterial consiste láminas atómicas de carbono extraídas del grafito y, gracias a sus interesantes propiedades mecánicas, eléctricas, térmicas, ópticas, etc., durante los últimos años se han invertido millones de dólares alrededor del mundo para tenerlo disponible en distintas aplicaciones, dentro de las cuales, la industria de la infraestructura y construcción ha logrado ser una de las más favorecidas.

Graphene career in the construction industry

2004 – Isolation of Graphene.

2010 – Recognition of the scientists Konstantin Novoselov and Andre Geim with the Nobel Prize in Physics for the isolation of Graphene.

2013 – Energeia Graphenemex is established, the first company in Latin America specialized in the production of graphene materials and development of applications.

2018 – Graphenemex® launches Nanocreto® on the market, the first additive for concrete with graphene oxide in the world (Mexico).

2019 – Graphenenano launches Smart additives, additives with graphene for concrete (Spain).

2019 – GrapheneCA presents its line of OG concrete admix products for the industry

concrete (USA).

2021- Scientists from the University of Manchester develop the concrete admixture Concretene (England).

2022 – Energeia – Graphenemex® launches the Graphenergy Construction line, a

improved version of its concrete admixture (Mexico).

Graphenergy construction is a water-based admixture compatible with other admixtures, designed to improve the quality of concrete or concrete, with the aim of reinforcing the pre-existing characteristics of concrete, such as mechanical resistance, but also to add value by providing non-existent properties in the original design, such as waterproofing, thermal insulation and antimicrobial protection.

How does Graphenergy construction work?

1. High impermeability and anti-corrosiveness

Graphenergy construction within the cementitious matrix forms molecularly more ordered and closed architectures that reduce the porosity of the structure and therefore create hydrophobic surfaces that, at a microstructural level, also hinder the passage of liquids and gases, hindering the passage of the agents that cause structural deterioration, especially in aggressive environments such as coastal or highly polluted environments.

Structure closure at the molecular level has also been demonstrated by electrical diffusivity measurements; These results support the protection of the metal structure of the concrete, increasing the useful life of the structure.

2. Improved mechanical properties

The more compact and organized architecture at the molecular level that Graphenergy Construction Graphene Oxide achieves within the concrete, allows microcrack limitation centers to form and therefore the structure becomes stronger when subjected to compression or tension loads, while favoring its flexibility.

3. Thermal insulation

The thermal insulation offered by Graphenergy construction is due to the ability of graphene oxide to dissipate heat with great efficiency and even to withstand intense electrical currents without heating up.

4. Antimicrobial protection

Graphenic additives offer different fronts of chemical and physical attacks of combined interaction, highly resistant to the formation of microbial biofilms, this means that microorganisms do not find a suitable environment to grow and release their by-products (eg. sulfuric acid) and, therefore, is not generated or, failing that, delays the appearance of microbiologically induced corrosion of concrete (MIC). This protection is extremely important, for example, for water systems since, inside the pipes, MIC is capable of dissolving up to 25 mm of concrete per year.


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